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J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn. 2003 Jul;29(4):539-53.

Representation of lexical form.

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Department of Psychology, Center for Cognitive Science, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, 14260, USA.


The authors attempted to determine whether surface representations of spoken words are mapped onto underlying, abstract representations. In particular, they tested the hypothesis that flaps--neutralized allophones of intervocalic /t/s and /d/s--are mapped onto their underlying phonemic counterparts. In 6 repetition priming experiments, participants responded to stimuli in 2 blocks of trials. Stimuli in the 1st block served as primes and those in the 2nd as targets. Primes and targets consisted of English words containing intervocalic /t/s and /d/s that, when produced casually, were flapped. In all 6 experiments, reaction times to target items were measured as a function of prime type. The results provide evidence for both surface and underlying form-based representations.

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