Send to

Choose Destination

Exposure-disease continuum for 2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine, a prototype ocular teratogen. 3. Intervention with PK11195.

Author information

Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA.



Treatment of pregnant mice with 2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine (2CdA) on Day 8 of gestation induces microphthalmia through a mechanism linked to the p53 tumor suppressor pathway. The present study defines the response of Day 8 mouse embryos through time with respect to pharmacologic intervention with PK11195, a ligand of the mitochondrial peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (Bzrp).


Pregnant CD-1 mice dosed with 2CdA with or without PK11195 on gestation Day 8 provided fetuses for teratologic evaluation on Day 14 and Day 17; HPLC measured pyridine nucleotides (NADH/NAD+) at 1.5 hr, RT-PCR measured mitochondrial 16S rRNA abundance at 3.0 hr, and p53 protein induction was assessed with immunostaining at 4.5 hr postexposure.


The mean incidences of malformed fetuses were significantly higher in the 7.5 mg/kg 2CdA treatment group (50.2% malformed) vs. the 2CdA + 4.0 mg/kg PK11195 co-treatment group (4.4% malformed). Malformed fetuses displayed a range of ocular defects that included microphthalmia and keratolenticular dysgenesis (Peters anomaly). No malformations were observed in the control or PK11195 alone groups. PK11195 also protected litters from increased resorption rates and fetal weight reduction. It did not rescue early effects on NADH balance (1.5 hr) or 16S rRNA expression (3.0 hr); however, the p53 response (4.5 hr) was downgraded in 2CdA + PK11195 embryos vs. 2CdA alone. By delaying the administration of PK11195 in 1.5 hr intervals it was determined that the window for protection closed between 4.5 to 6.0 hr after 2CdA.


The capacity of PK11195 to suppress the pathogenesis of microphthalmia implies a critical role for mitochondrial peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in the p53-dependent mode of action of 2CdA on ocular development.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center