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Avian Dis. 1999 Oct-Dec;43(4):696-703.

Detection of a macrophage-specific antigen and the production of interferon gamma in chickens infected with Newcastle disease virus.

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Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens 30602-7388, USA.


Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded spleen and intestinal tissues were harvested at 2 days postinfection from 4-wk-old white rock chickens infected with five different strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). These tissues were examined for the presence of macrophage antigen expression, virus replication, and interferon gamma (IFN gamma) production. The five strains represented all three NDV pathotypes. Viral replication and IFN gamma, as determined by riboprobe in situ hybridization, were detected only in those chickens infected with velogenic viscerotropic NDV (VVNDV) strains. Macrophage antigen expression, an indicator of macrophage activation, was determined by immunohistochemistry with a macrophage-specific antibody, CVI-ChNL-68.1. Presence of macrophage antigen was most prominent in VVNDV-infected chickens. The distribution of this antigen within tissues was far more diffuse than the staining for viral mRNA. The presence of IFN gamma mRNA was detected in the spleen and intestinal lymphoid tissue of VVNDV-infected chickens. There was also increased macrophage antigen expression in the mesogen-infected birds, but it was less dramatic than in tissues from VVNDV-infected chickens. One of two lentogen-infected birds had evidence of increased macrophage antigen expression only in the spleen.

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