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Pediatr Nephrol. 2019 Jun 25. doi: 10.1007/s00467-019-04271-1. [Epub ahead of print]

Assessing bone mineralisation in children with chronic kidney disease: what clinical and research tools are available?

Author information

1
Nephrology Department Great Ormond St. Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust and University College London Institute of Child Health, London, UK. alex.lalayiannis@nhs.net.
2
Birmingham Women's and Children's NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK.
3
Nephrology Department Great Ormond St. Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust and University College London Institute of Child Health, London, UK.
4
University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK.

Abstract

Mineral and bone disorder in chronic kidney disease (CKD-MBD) is a triad of biochemical imbalances of calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D, bone abnormalities and soft tissue calcification. Maintaining optimal bone health in children with CKD is important to prevent long-term complications, such as fractures, to optimise growth and possibly also to prevent extra-osseous calcification, especially vascular calcification. In this review, we discuss normal bone mineralisation, the pathophysiology of dysregulated homeostasis leading to mineralisation defects in CKD and its clinical consequences. Bone mineralisation is best assessed on bone histology and histomorphometry, but given the rarity with which this is performed, we present an overview of the tools available to clinicians to assess bone mineral density, including serum biomarkers and imaging such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography. We discuss key studies that have used these techniques, their advantages and disadvantages in childhood CKD and their relationship to biomarkers and bone histomorphometry. Finally, we present recommendations from relevant guidelines-Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes and the International Society of Clinical Densitometry-on the use of imaging, biomarkers and bone biopsy in assessing bone mineral density. Given low-level evidence from most paediatric studies, bone imaging and histology remain largely research tools, and current clinical management is guided by serum calcium, phosphate, PTH, vitamin D and alkaline phosphatase levels only.

KEYWORDS:

Bone biopsy; Bone mineralisation; Chronic kidney disease (CKD); Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); Peripheral quantitative CT (pQCT)

PMID:
31240395
DOI:
10.1007/s00467-019-04271-1

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