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Bone. 2019 Jun;123:260-264. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2019.03.039. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Type 1 diabetes onset at young age is associated with compromised bone quality.

Author information

1
Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, United States of America. Electronic address: viral.shah@ucdenver.edu.
2
Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, United States of America.
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045, United States of America.
4
Department of Geriatrics, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045, United States of America.

Abstract

Women with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are at increased risk for fracture. We studied the association of T1D and young age at T1D onset (T1D onset before 20 years) on bone structural quality. 24 postmenopausal women with T1D (mean age 60.9 years, mean T1D duration 41.7 years) and 22 age, sex- and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls underwent dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measured areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the lumbar spine, hip and distal radius. Bone mass, geometry and estimated bone strength were assessed at distal and shaft of non-dominant radius and tibia using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Postmenopausal women with T1D had lower trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) (LSM ± SEM; 166.1 ± 8.2 vs 195.9 ± 8.3 mg/cm3, p = 0.02) and compressive bone strength (24.6 ± 1.8 vs 30.1 ± 1.9 mg2/mm4, p = 0.04) at the distal radius compared to controls adjusting for age, BMI and radius length. At the distal radius, patients with young onset T1D had lower total vBMD (258.7 ± 19.7 vs 350.8 ± 26.1 mg/cm3, p = 0.02) and trabecular vBMD (141.4 ± 11.6 vs 213.6 ± 15.4 mg/cm3, p = 0.003) compared to adult onset T1D patients adjusting for age, BMI and the radius length. At the tibial shaft, young onset T1D patients had larger endosteal circumference (39.1 ± 1.2 vs 32.1 ± 1.6 mm, p = 0.005) with similar periosteal circumference (67.1 ± 0.9 vs 65.1 ± 1.2 mm, p = 0.2) resulting in reduced cortical thickness (4.4 ± 0.1 vs 5.2 ± 0.1 mm, p = 0.004) compared to adult onset T1D patients adjusting for age, BMI and the tibia length. There was no difference in the lumbar spine, femoral neck, total hip and distal radius DXA-measured aBMD between subjects with T1D and controls. T1D is associated with lower trabecular vBMD at the distal radius. T1D onset before age 20 is associated with cortical bone size deficits at the tibial shaft.

KEYWORDS:

Bone health; Bone mineral density; Peripheral quantitative computed tomography; Postmenopausal women; Type 1 diabetes

PMID:
30936041
DOI:
10.1016/j.bone.2019.03.039

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