Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Bone. 2019 Jun;123:224-233. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2019.03.021. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Calcium and vitamin D supplementation and bone health in Marine recruits: Effect of season.

Author information

1
Military Performance Division, United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA 01760, United States of America. Electronic address: erin.g.stomberg.civ@mail.mil.
2
Military Performance Division, United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA 01760, United States of America; Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oakridge, TN 37830, United States of America.
3
Military Performance Division, United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA 01760, United States of America.
4
Department of Military and Emergency Medicine, Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814, United States of America.
5
Military Nutrition Division, United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA 01760, United States of America.

Abstract

Stress fractures are common overuse injuries caused by repetitive bone loading. These fractures are of particular concern for military recruits and athletes resulting in attrition in up to 60% of recruits that sustain a fracture. Army and Navy recruits supplemented with daily calcium and vitamin D (Ca + D) demonstrated improved bone strength and reduced stress fractures. The aim of the current study was to evaluate whether Ca + D supplementation improves measures of bone health in recruits undergoing United States Marine Corps initial military training (IMT), and whether the effect of supplementation on indices of bone health varied by season. One-hundred ninety-seven Marine recruits (n = 107 males, n = 90 females, mean age = 18.9 ± 1.6 y) were randomized to receive either Ca + D fortified snack bars (2000 mg Ca and 1000 IU vitamin D per day) or placebo divided into twice daily doses during 12 weeks of IMT. Anthropometrics, fasted blood samples, and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) scans of the tibial metaphysis and diaphysis were collected upon entrance to- and post-training (12 weeks later). Half of the volunteers entered training in July and the other half started in February. Time-by-group interactions were observed for vitamin D status (25OHD) and the bone turnover markers, BAP, TRAP and OCN. 25OHD increased and BAP, TRAP and OCN all decreased in the Ca + D group (p < .05). Training increased distal tibia volumetric BMD (+1.9 ± 2.8%), BMC (+2.0 ± 3.1%), and bone strength index (BSI; +4.0 ± 4.0%) and diaphyseal BMC (+1.0 ± 2.2%) and polar stress strain index (SSIp; +0.7 ± 2.1%) independent of Ca + D supplementation (p < .05 for all). When analyzed by season, change in BSI was greater in the Ca + D group as compared to placebo in the summer iteration only (T*G; p < .05). No other effects of supplementation on bone tissue were observed. When categorized by tertile of percent change in BSI, recruits demonstrating the greatest changes in BSI and 25OHD entered training with the lowest levels of 25OHD (p < .05). Over all, these results suggest that Ca + D supplementation reduced some markers of bone formation and resorption and the decline in 25OHD over training in volunteers that started training in the summer was prevented by supplementation. Baseline 25OHD and trajectory may impact bone responses to IMT, but little effect of Ca + D supplementation was observed at the investigated doses.

KEYWORDS:

Biomarker; Bone; Calcium; Exercise; Military; Vitamin D

PMID:
30902791
DOI:
10.1016/j.bone.2019.03.021

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center