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J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2013 Jun;13(2):227-35.

Mechanography in childhood: references for grip force, multiple one-leg hopping force and whole body stiffness.

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University Children's Hospital Tübingen, Germany.



We sought to study and procure reference values for weight-related maximum isometric grip force (MIGF), maximum voluntary force in relation to body weight (Fmvrel) and peak whole body stiffness (pKwb) in multiple one-legged hopping (m1LH) in childhood.


We examined 868 children and adolescents (436 female) aged 3 to 19 yrs. Weight related results are reported as multiples of earth's gravity (g).


MIFG and Fmv(m1LH) are highly linearly correlated with body weight. After adjustment for weight, mean Fmvrel(m1LH) increases from the age of 3 to 6 yrs, then remains at 3.33 g (SD 0.31 g) between 6 and 19 yrs, independent of age and gender. The difference between legs decreases from 10% at 3 yrs to a constant 5.5% after the age of 7 yrs. Weight-adjusted MIGF also increases steeply from 3 to 6 yrs, then shows a further linear, less steep increase - in males through to age 19 yrs while females show a near-standstill after the age of 12 yrs. pKwb(m1LH) increases from the age of 7 yrs.


This data from normal children from a healthy Caucasian population provide a reference for tests of motor function.

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