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Cells. 2019 Jun 12;8(6). pii: E579. doi: 10.3390/cells8060579.

Genome Organization in and around the Nucleolus.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular Mechanisms of Disease, DMMD, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland. cristiana.bersaglieri@dmmd.uzh.ch.
2
Molecular Life Science Program, Life Science Zurich Graduate School, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland. cristiana.bersaglieri@dmmd.uzh.ch.
3
Department of Molecular Mechanisms of Disease, DMMD, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland. raffaella.santoro@dmmd.uzh.ch.

Abstract

The nucleolus is the largest substructure in the nucleus, where ribosome biogenesis takes place, and forms around the nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) that comprise ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Each cell contains hundreds of rRNA genes, which are organized in three distinct chromatin and transcriptional states-silent, inactive and active. Increasing evidence indicates that the role of the nucleolus and rRNA genes goes beyond the control of ribosome biogenesis. Recent results highlighted the nucleolus as a compartment for the location and regulation of repressive genomic domains and, together with the nuclear lamina, represents the hub for the organization of the inactive heterochromatin. In this review, we aim to describe the crosstalk between the nucleolus and the rest of the genome and how distinct rRNA gene chromatin states affect nucleolus structure and are implicated in genome stability, genome architecture, and cell fate decision.

KEYWORDS:

NoRC; Nucleolus; cancer; chromatin; embryonic stem cells; epigenetics; genome architecture; genome instability; lamina-associated domains(LADs); lncRNA; nucleolus-associated domains (NADs); rRNA genes

PMID:
31212844
PMCID:
PMC6628108
DOI:
10.3390/cells8060579
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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