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See 1 citation in 2012 by Ortega Pierres G:

Infect Genet Evol. 2013 Apr;15:10-7. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2012.08.021. Epub 2012 Sep 26.

Proteomic and transcriptional analyses of genes differentially expressed in Giardia duodenalis clones resistant to albendazole.

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Departamento de Genética y Biología Molecular, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados-IPN, 07360 Mexico City, Mexico.


In this study we performed proteomic and transcriptional analyses to identify and characterize genes differentially expressed in Giardia duodenalis clones resistant to albendazole. The expression of proteins and their corresponding mRNAs was analyzed in clones resistant in vitro to different concentrations of albendazole (1.35, 8.0 and 250 μM) and these were compared with albendazole-sensitive clones using two approaches: (1) two-dimensional protein electrophoresis to analyze the proteome by the LC-MS/MS technique, and (2) semi-quantitative RT-PCR to assess the mRNA levels of proteins with the highest levels of differential expression .This strategy allowed the identification of eight proteins differentially expressed in albendazole resistant clones with roles in: (a) the cytoskeletal system (alpha 2-giardin and RanBP1), (b) the antioxidant metabolism (NADH oxidase) and (c) energy metabolism (triosephosphate isomerase, phosphoglycerate kinase and ornithine carbamoyltransferase). Gene expression analyses of these genes correlated well with the proteomics results. These observations suggest that resistance to albendazole in Giardia encompasses a complex response involving an altered expression of genes regulated at the transcriptional level that might have an important role in maintaining cell structural stability, coping with oxidative stress and adapting energy supply to a new metabolic status. These molecules are indeed promising targets for drug development.

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