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J Clin Periodontol. 2019 Apr 2. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.13094. [Epub ahead of print]

The influence of an anti-inflammatory diet on gingivitis. A randomized controlled trial.

Author information

1
Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Center, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
2
Institute of Sports and Sports Science, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Center, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
3
Department of Medical Biometry and Statistics, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Center, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
4
Department of Physiology and Biochemistry of Nutrition, Max Rubner-Institut, Karlsruhe, Germany.
5
Department of Restorative, Preventive and Pediatric Dentistry, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland.

Abstract

AIM:

Aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an anti-inflammatory diet on different parameters in patients with gingivitis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Thirty patients were randomly allocated to an experimental and a control group stratified by their plaque values. The experimental group had to change to a diet low in processed carbohydrates and animal proteins, and rich in omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin C, vitamin D, antioxidants, plant nitrates and fibres for 4 weeks. The control group did not change their diet. Both groups suspended interdental cleaning. Periodontal parameters were assessed by a blinded dentist. Serological and subgingival plaque samples were taken at baseline and end.

RESULTS:

While there were no differences regarding the plaque values, the experimental group showed a significant reduction in gingival bleeding (GI Baseline: 1.04 ± 0.21, GI End: 0.61 ± 0.29, p < 0.05), a significant increase in Vitamin D values and a significant weight loss. There were no inter-group differences regarding the inflammatory serological parameters, the serological omega fatty acids, nor the subgingival microbiome composition.

CONCLUSION:

The evaluated diet could significantly reduce gingivitis in a clinically relevant range, while serological inflammatory parameters and the subgingival microbiome seem to be unaffected in this study duration. (German Clinical Trials Register; DRKS00009888).

KEYWORDS:

carbohydrates; host modulation; micronutrients; nutrition; omega-3 fatty acids; periodontal disease

PMID:
30941800
DOI:
10.1111/jcpe.13094

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