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Public Health Nutr. 2012 Nov;15(11):2047-53. doi: 10.1017/S1368980012003217. Epub 2012 Aug 3.

Vitamin D intake and serum vitamin D in ethnically diverse urban schoolchildren.

Author information

1
Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA. lauren.au@tufts.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Low serum vitamin D, which largely affects ethnic minorities, is associated with obesity and other chronic diseases. Little is known about racial/ethnic differences in intake, particularly in children, or if any differences are associated with differences in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). The objective of the present study was to determine whether racial/ethnic differences in dietary vitamin D intake exist and whether they explain differences in 25(OH)D.

DESIGN:

Vitamin D intakes (Block Kids 2004 FFQ) and 25(OH)D were measured. Race/ethnicity was parent-reported (white (37·9 %), Hispanic (32·4 %), black (8·3 %), Asian (10·3 %), multi-racial/other (11·0 %)). Multivariable analyses were conducted to examine the associations among dietary vitamin D and race/ethnicity, as well as 25(OH)D, independent of BMI Z-score and other covariates.

SETTING:

Elementary/middle schools in Somerville, MA, USA, during January-April 2010.

SUBJECTS:

Schoolchildren (n 145) in 4th-8th grade.

RESULTS:

Only 2·1 % met the 2011 RDA (15 μg/d (600 IU/d)). Average dietary intake was 3.5 (sd 2.2) μg/d (140 (sd 89·0) IU/d). No racial/ethnic differences in intake were evident. Most (83·4 %) were 25(OH)D deficient (<20 ng/ml; 16·0 (sd 6·5) ng/ml). In ANOVA post hoc analyses, 25(OH)D levels were lower in Hispanics than whites (14·6 (sd 6·1) ng/ml v. 17·9 (sd 4·6) ng/ml; P < 0·01). Dietary vitamin D was associated with 25(OH)D overall (P < 0·05), but did not explain the racial/ethnic differences in 25(OH)D.

CONCLUSIONS:

Most children in this north-east US sample did not meet dietary recommendations for vitamin D and were vitamin D deficient. Dietary vitamin D did not explain the difference in 25(OH)D between Hispanic and white children. Further research is needed to determine if changes in dietary vitamin D by race/ethnicity can impact 25(OH)D levels.

PMID:
22857261
PMCID:
PMC4390038
DOI:
10.1017/S1368980012003217
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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