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Sci Immunol. 2018 May 18;3(23). pii: eaar3451. doi: 10.1126/sciimmunol.aar3451.

Tumor immune evasion arises through loss of TNF sensitivity.

Author information

1
Immune Defence Laboratory, Cancer Immunology Program, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia.
2
Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia.
3
Gene Regulation Laboratory, Translational Haematology Program, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia.
4
Cell Signalling and Cell Death Division, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute for Medical Research, Parkville, Victoria 3050, Australia.
5
Cancer Therapeutics and Cancer Metabolism Program, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia.
6
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia.
7
Cancer Cell Death Laboratory, Cancer Immunology Program, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia.
8
Immunotherapy Laboratory, Cancer Immunology Program, Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, East Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia.
9
Killer Cell Biology Laboratory, Cancer Immunology Program, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia.
10
Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia. ricky.johnstone@petermac.org jane.oliaro@petermac.org.
11
Immune Defence Laboratory, Cancer Immunology Program, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia. ricky.johnstone@petermac.org jane.oliaro@petermac.org.

Abstract

Immunotherapy has revolutionized outcomes for cancer patients, but the mechanisms of resistance remain poorly defined. We used a series of whole-genome clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-based screens performed in vitro and in vivo to identify mechanisms of tumor immune evasion from cytotoxic lymphocytes [CD8+ T cells and natural killer (NK) cells]. Deletion of key genes within the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) signaling, and antigen presentation pathways provided protection of tumor cells from CD8+ T cell-mediated killing and blunted antitumor immune responses in vivo. Deletion of a number of genes in the TNF pathway also emerged as the key mechanism of immune evasion from primary NK cells. Our screens also identified that the metabolic protein 2-aminoethanethiol dioxygenase (Ado) modulates sensitivity to TNF-mediated killing by cytotoxic lymphocytes and is required for optimal control of tumors in vivo. Remarkably, we found that tumors delete the same genes when exposed to perforin-deficient CD8+ T cells, demonstrating that the dominant immune evasion strategy used by tumor cells is acquired resistance to T cell-derived cytokine-mediated antitumor effects. We demonstrate that TNF-mediated bystander killing is a potent T cell effector mechanism capable of killing antigen-negative tumor cells. In addition to highlighting the importance of TNF in CD8+ T cell- and NK cell-mediated killing of tumor cells, our study also provides a comprehensive picture of the roles of the TNF, IFN, and antigen presentation pathways in immune-mediated tumor surveillance.

PMID:
29776993
DOI:
10.1126/sciimmunol.aar3451

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