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J Psychosom Res. 2018 Feb;105:31-36. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2017.12.004. Epub 2017 Dec 5.

Treatment utilization and barriers to treatment among individuals with olfactory reference syndrome (ORS).

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Simches Research Building 185 Cambridge Street, Suite 2000, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Electronic address: jlgreenberg@mgh.harvard.edu.
2
Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Simches Research Building 185 Cambridge Street, Suite 2000, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Electronic address: nberman@mgh.harvard.edu.
3
Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Simches Research Building 185 Cambridge Street, Suite 2000, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Electronic address: vbraddick@mgh.harvard.edu.
4
Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Simches Research Building 185 Cambridge Street, Suite 2000, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
5
Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Simches Research Building 185 Cambridge Street, Suite 2000, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Electronic address: ssarvodemothi@mgh.harvard.edu.
6
Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Simches Research Building 185 Cambridge Street, Suite 2000, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Electronic address: swilhelm@mgh.harvard.edu.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Olfactory reference syndrome (ORS) is characterized by a preoccupation that one is emitting a foul or offensive odor. Despite the profound psychosocial impact of ORS, many patients do not receive appropriate treatment, and there is no empirical research on treatment-seeking behavior in ORS. This study investigated treatment utilization patterns and barriers to treatment in individuals with ORS.

METHOD:

253 subjects completed an online survey between January-March 2010. Data were obtained from the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for ORS (ORS-YBOCS), Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS), Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS), and questionnaires specific to treatment utilization and barriers.

RESULTS:

The sample was ethnically diverse, predominately male (67%), with an average age of 33.7years, and moderately severe ORS symptoms. Most participants first sought care from a medical specialist (44%), and mental health services were underutilized (14%). Higher functional impairment was significantly correlated with seeking care from a mental health provider, compared to a medical specialist. Nearly all participants endorsed multiple barriers to treatment, including (a) logistical/financial, (b) stigma/discrimination, and (c) treatment perception barriers. ORS symptom severity was significantly, positively correlated with number of logistical/financial and stigma/discrimination barriers. Treatment barriers were significantly influenced by ethnic group, ORS symptom severity, and source of odor.

CONCLUSION:

Results highlight the importance of increasing awareness and enhancing access to care for individuals with ORS.

KEYWORDS:

Jikoshu-kyofu; Malodour; Obsessive compulsive disorder; Olfactory reference syndrome; Tajin kyofusho; Treatment

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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