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See 1 citation in Transplantation Reviews 2014:

Transplant Rev (Orlando). 2014 Apr;28(2):37-46. doi: 10.1016/j.trre.2013.12.004. Epub 2013 Dec 27.

Obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus after renal transplantation: prevention and treatment.

Author information

1
Nephrology Department, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium; Nephrology and Dialysis Clinic, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Brugmann, Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address: kwissing@uzbrussel.be.
2
Nephrology Department, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.

Abstract

The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in dialysis patients is high and further increases after transplantation due to weight gain and the detrimental metabolic effects of immunosuppressive drugs. Corticosteroids cause insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, abnormal glucose metabolism and arterial hypertension. The calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus is diabetogenic by inhibiting insulin secretion, whereas cyclosporine causes hypertension and increases cholesterol levels. Mtor antagonists are responsible for hyperlipidemia and abnormal glucose metabolism by mechanisms that also implicate insulin resistance. The metabolic syndrome in transplant recipients has numerous detrimental effects such as increasing the risk of new onset diabetes, cardiovascular disease events and patient death. In addition, it has also been linked with accelerated loss of graft function, proteinuria and ultimately graft loss. Prevention and management of the metabolic syndrome are based on increasing physical activity, promotion of weight loss and control of cardiovascular risk factors. Bariatric surgery before or after renal transplantation in patients with body mass index >35 kg/m(2) is an option but its long term effects on graft and patient survival have not been investigated. Steroid withdrawal and replacement of tacrolimus with cyclosporine facilitate control of diabetes, whereas replacement of cyclosporine and mtor antagonists can improve hyperlipidemia. The new costimulation inhibitor belatacept has potent immunosuppressive properties without metabolic adverse effects and will be an important component of immunosuppressive regimens with better metabolic risk profile. Medical treatment of cardiovascular risk factors has to take potential drug interactions with immunosuppressive medication and drug accumulation due to renal insufficiency into account.

PMID:
24507957
DOI:
10.1016/j.trre.2013.12.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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