Send to

Choose Destination
FASEB J. 2011 Jun;25(6):1815-26. doi: 10.1096/fj.10-167940. Epub 2011 Feb 22.

Thymosin beta4 inhibits TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activation, IL-8 expression, and the sensitizing effects by its partners PINCH-1 and ILK.

Author information

Department of Ophthalmology, Kresge Eye Institute, Detroit, Michigan, USA.


The mechanisms by which thymosin β 4 (Tβ(4)) regulates the inflammatory response to injury are poorly understood. Previously, we demonstrated that ectopic Tβ(4) treatment inhibits injury-induced proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production. We have also shown that Tβ(4) suppresses TNF-α-mediated NF-κB activation. Herein, we present novel evidence that Tβ(4) directly targets the NF-κB RelA/p65 subunit. We find that enforced expression of Tβ(4) interferes with TNF-α-mediated NF-κB activation, as well as downstream IL-8 gene transcription. These activities are independent of the G-actin-binding properties of Tβ(4). Tβ(4) blocks RelA/p65 nuclear translocation and targeting to the cognate κB site in the proximal region of the IL-8 gene promoter. Tβ(4) also inhibits the sensitizing effects of its intracellular binding partners, PINCH-1 and ILK, on NF-κB activity after TNF-α stimulation. The identification of a functional regulatory role by Tβ(4) and the focal adhesion proteins PINCH-1 and ILK on NF-κB activity in this study opens a new window for scientific exploration of how Tβ(4) modulates inflammation. In addition, the results of this study serve as a foundation for developing Tβ(4) as a new anti-inflammatory therapy.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Publication types, MeSH terms, Substances, Grant support

Publication types

MeSH terms


Grant support

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Atypon Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center