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Curr Med Chem. 2011;18(15):2263-71. doi: 0929-8673/11 $58.00+.00.

The interplay between indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in chronic inflammation and cancer.

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1
IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, Rome, Italy.

Abstract

The enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) degrades the essential amino acid tryptophan into kynurenine and other downstream metabolites that suppress effector T-cell function and favor the differentiation of regulatory T cells. IDO1 is traditionally viewed as a general suppressor of T-cell activation and mediator of immune escape in cancer. Recently, evidence has emerged to support a greater functional complexity of IDO1 as modifier of pathogenic inflammation. For instance, IDO1 activity may sustain autoantibody production by B cells, and elicit the development of cancer in the context of chronic inflammation. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 metabolizes the first enzymatic step in the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostanoids. In particular, prostaglandin (PG)E2 generated at sites of inflammation and/or immune response is mainly COX-2-derived and has pro-inflammatory and immune regulatory activities. Pharmacological blockade of COX-2 in animal models of cancer translates into down-regulation of IDO1 expression at tumor sites and decreased levels of kynurenine in the circulation, underpinning the view that IDO1 might be downstream of COX-2. This article reviews preclinical studies focusing on IDO1 and COX-2 as inter-related molecular targets for therapeutic intervention in chronic inflammation and cancer. COX-2 inhibition might, in principle, be pursued in cancer-associated inflammation characterized by IDO1 hyper-activity, with the foreseeable aim at altering the immune response within the tumor microenvironment.

PMID:
21517752
DOI:
0929-8673/11 $58.00+.00
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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