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Nat Ecol Evol. 2019 Jun;3(6):966-976. doi: 10.1038/s41559-019-0878-2. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

The genetic history of admixture across inner Eurasia.

Author information

1
Department of Archaeogenetics, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany. jeong@shh.mpg.de.
2
Eurasia3angle Research Group, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany. jeong@shh.mpg.de.
3
School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. jeong@shh.mpg.de.
4
Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.
5
Federal State Budgetary Institution 'Research Centre for Medical Genetics', Moscow, Russia.
6
Department of Population Genetics, Institute of General Genetics and Cytology, Science Committee, Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
7
Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
8
Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, Ostrava, Czech Republic.
9
Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia and Biology Centre, Czech Academy of Sciences, České Budĕjovice, Czech Republic.
10
Department of Archaeogenetics, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany.
11
Department of Anthropology and Ethnology, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.
12
Institute of Archeology and Steppe Civilization, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
13
Kemerovo State Medical University, Kemerovo, Russia.
14
Kuban State Medical University, Krasnodar, Russia.
15
Institute of Strategic Research of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, Russia.
16
Faculty of Geography, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.
17
Transbaikal State University, Chita, Russia.
18
Mongolian Academy of Medical Sciences, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.
19
Center for Advanced Technologies, Ministry of Innovational Development, Tashkent, Uzbekistan.
20
Belgorod State University, Belgorod, Russia.
21
Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.
22
National Laboratory Astana, Nazarbayev University, Astana, Kazakhstan.
23
National Center for Biotechnology, Astana, Kazakhstan.
24
Laboratory of Ethnogenomics, Institute of Molecular Biology, National Academy of Sciences, Yerevan, Armenia.
25
Udmurt Institute of History, Language and Literature, Udmurt Federal Research Center, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhevsk, Russia.
26
Research Institute of Medical and Social Problems and Control, Healthcare Department of Tuva Republic, Kyzyl, Russia.
27
Leprosy Research Institute, Astrakhan, Russia.
28
V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkiv, Ukraine.
29
Astrakhan Branch, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, Astrakhan, Russia.
30
Northern State Medical University, Arkhangelsk, Russia.
31
Estonian Biocentre, Institute of Genomics, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
32
Department of Archaeology, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.
33
Eurasia3angle Research Group, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany.
34
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
35
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
36
Department of Archaeogenetics, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany. krause@shh.mpg.de.

Abstract

The indigenous populations of inner Eurasia-a huge geographic region covering the central Eurasian steppe and the northern Eurasian taiga and tundra-harbour tremendous diversity in their genes, cultures and languages. In this study, we report novel genome-wide data for 763 individuals from Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Mongolia, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. We furthermore report additional damage-reduced genome-wide data of two previously published individuals from the Eneolithic Botai culture in Kazakhstan (~5,400 BP). We find that present-day inner Eurasian populations are structured into three distinct admixture clines stretching between various western and eastern Eurasian ancestries, mirroring geography. The Botai and more recent ancient genomes from Siberia show a decrease in contributions from so-called 'ancient North Eurasian' ancestry over time, which is detectable only in the northern-most 'forest-tundra' cline. The intermediate 'steppe-forest' cline descends from the Late Bronze Age steppe ancestries, while the 'southern steppe' cline further to the south shows a strong West/South Asian influence. Ancient genomes suggest a northward spread of the southern steppe cline in Central Asia during the first millennium BC. Finally, the genetic structure of Caucasus populations highlights a role of the Caucasus Mountains as a barrier to gene flow and suggests a post-Neolithic gene flow into North Caucasus populations from the steppe.

Comment in

PMID:
31036896
PMCID:
PMC6542712
DOI:
10.1038/s41559-019-0878-2
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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