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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jan 27;112(4):1095-100. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1423628112. Epub 2015 Jan 12.

The draft genome of Tibetan hulless barley reveals adaptive patterns to the high stressful Tibetan Plateau.

Author information

1
Tibet Academy of Agricultural and Animal Husbandry Sciences, Lhasa, Tibet 850002, China; Barley Improvement and Yak Breeding Key Laboratory of Tibet Autonomous Region, Lhasa 850002, China;
2
Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, P. R. China;
3
BGI-Tech, BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China;
4
BGI-Tech, BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China; College of Life Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
5
Projects and Physics Section, Sapir Academic College, D.N. Hof Ashkelon 79165, Israel;
6
Institute of Evolution, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905, Israel; nima_zhaxi@sina.com nevo@research.haifa.ac.il yumaoqun@cib.ac.cn wangj@genomics.org.cn.
7
Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, P. R. China; nima_zhaxi@sina.com nevo@research.haifa.ac.il yumaoqun@cib.ac.cn wangj@genomics.org.cn.
8
BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China; Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2200, Denmark; and Princess Al Jawhara Center of Excellence in the Research of Hereditary Disorders, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21441, Saudi Arabia nima_zhaxi@sina.com nevo@research.haifa.ac.il yumaoqun@cib.ac.cn wangj@genomics.org.cn.
9
Tibet Academy of Agricultural and Animal Husbandry Sciences, Lhasa, Tibet 850002, China; Barley Improvement and Yak Breeding Key Laboratory of Tibet Autonomous Region, Lhasa 850002, China; nima_zhaxi@sina.com nevo@research.haifa.ac.il yumaoqun@cib.ac.cn wangj@genomics.org.cn.

Abstract

The Tibetan hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum), also called "Qingke" in Chinese and "Ne" in Tibetan, is the staple food for Tibetans and an important livestock feed in the Tibetan Plateau. The diploid nature and adaptation to diverse environments of the highland give it unique resources for genetic research and crop improvement. Here we produced a 3.89-Gb draft assembly of Tibetan hulless barley with 36,151 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative analyses revealed the divergence times and synteny between barley and other representative Poaceae genomes. The expansion of the gene family related to stress responses was found in Tibetan hulless barley. Resequencing of 10 barley accessions uncovered high levels of genetic variation in Tibetan wild barley and genetic divergence between Tibetan and non-Tibetan barley genomes. Selective sweep analyses demonstrate adaptive correlations of genes under selection with extensive environmental variables. Our results not only construct a genomic framework for crop improvement but also provide evolutionary insights of highland adaptation of Tibetan hulless barley.

KEYWORDS:

Tibetan hulless barley; Triticeae evolution; adaptation; genetic diversity; selective sweep

PMID:
25583503
PMCID:
PMC4313863
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.1423628112
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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