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J Learn Disabil. 2014 Nov-Dec;47(6):532-42. doi: 10.1177/0022219413478662. Epub 2013 Mar 1.

The Adult Reading History Questionnaire (ARHQ) in Icelandic: Psychometric Properties and Factor Structure.

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deCODE Genetics, Reykjavik, Iceland University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland
University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
deCODE Genetics, Reykjavik, Iceland.


This article describes psychometric testing of an Icelandic adaptation of the Adult Reading History Questionnaire (ARHQ), designed to detect a history of reading difficulties indicative of dyslexia. Tested in a large and diverse sample of 2,187 adults, the Icelandic adaptation demonstrated internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha = .92) and test-retest reliability (r = .93). Validity was established by comparing scores of adults who as children received ICD-10 diagnoses of specific reading disorder (F81.0; n = 419) to those of adults defined as nondyslexics (n = 679). ROC curve analysis resulted in an area under the curve of .92 (95% CI = .90, .93, p < .001) and a cutoff score of .43 with sensitivity of 84.5% and specificity of 83.7%. An exploratory factor analysis (n = 2,187) suggested three subscales, Dyslexia Symptoms, Current Reading, and Memory, the mean scores of which differed significantly among diagnosed dyslexics, relatives of dyslexics, and population controls. Our results support the applicability of the ARHQ in Icelandic as a self-report screening tool for adult dyslexia in Iceland.


Adult Reading History Questionnaire; Iceland; adult dyslexia; screening

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