Format

Send to

Choose Destination

See 1 citation found by title matching your search:

Pediatrics. 2013 Jan;131(1):e144-51. doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-1793. Epub 2012 Dec 17.

The relationship between cow's milk and stores of vitamin D and iron in early childhood.

Author information

1
The Applied Health Research Centre of the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St Michael’s Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. jonathon.maguire@utoronto.ca

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To examine the association between cow's milk intake on both vitamin D and iron stores in healthy urban preschoolers.

METHODS:

Healthy children 2 to 5 years of age were recruited from December 2008 through December 2010 through the TARGet Kids! practice-based research network. Cow's milk intake was measured by parental report. Vitamin D and iron stores were measured by using serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and ferritin. Bivariate multivariable linear regression was used to examine the effect of cow's milk intake simultaneously on 25-hydroxyvitamin D and serum ferritin. Analyses were stratified by important clinical variables including skin pigmentation, bottle feeding, vitamin D supplementation, and season.

RESULTS:

Among 1311 children, increasing cow's milk consumption was associated with decreasing serum ferritin (P < .0001) and increasing 25-hydroxyvitamin D (P ≤ .0001). Two cups (500 mL) of cow's milk per day maintained 25-hydroxyvitamin D >75 nmol/L with minimal negative effect on serum ferritin for most children. Children with darker skin pigmentation not receiving vitamin D supplementation during the winter required 3 to 4 cups of cow's milk per day to maintain 25-hydroxyvitamin D >75 nmol/L. Cow's milk intake among children using a bottle did not increase 25-hydroxyvitamin D and resulted in more dramatic decreases in serum ferritin.

CONCLUSIONS:

There is a trade-off between increasing 25-hydroxyvitamin D and decreasing serum ferritin with increasing milk intake. Two cups of cow's milk per day appears sufficient to maintain healthy vitamin D and iron stores for most children. Wintertime vitamin D supplementation was particularly important among children with darker skin pigmentation.

PMID:
23248224
DOI:
10.1542/peds.2012-1793
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire
Loading ...
Support Center