Send to

Choose Destination

See 1 citation found by title matching your search:

Front Pediatr. 2018 Jul 24;6:197. doi: 10.3389/fped.2018.00197. eCollection 2018.

The Prebiotic and Probiotic Properties of Human Milk: Implications for Infant Immune Development and Pediatric Asthma.

Moossavi S1,2,3,4, Miliku K2,3,5, Sepehri S2, Khafipour E1,2,6, Azad MB2,3,5.

Author information

Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.
Children's Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.
Developmental Origins of Chronic Diseases in Children Network (DEVOTION), Children's Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.
Digestive Oncology Research Center, Digestive Disease Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Pediatrics and Child Health, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.
Department of Animal Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.


The incidence of pediatric asthma has increased substantially in recent decades, reaching a worldwide prevalence of 14%. This rapid increase may be attributed to the loss of "Old Friend" microbes from the human microbiota resulting in a less diverse and "dysbiotic" gut microbiota, which fails to optimally stimulate immune development during infancy. This hypothesis is supported by observations that the gut microbiota is different in infants who develop asthma later in life compared to those who remain healthy. Thus, early life exposures that influence gut microbiota play a crucial role in asthma development. Breastfeeding is one such exposure; it is generally considered protective against pediatric asthma, although conflicting results have been reported, potentially due to variations in milk composition between individuals and across populations. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) and milk microbiota are two major milk components that influence the infant gut microbiota and hence, development of the immune system. Among their many immunomodulatory functions, HMOs exert a selective pressure within the infant gut microbial niche, preferentially promoting the proliferation of specific bacteria including Bifidobacteria. Milk is also a source of viable bacteria originating from the maternal gut and infant oral cavity. As such, breastmilk has prebiotic and probiotic properties that can modulate two of the main forces controlling the gut microbial community assembly, i.e., dispersal and selection. Here, we review the latest evidence, mechanisms and hypotheses for the synergistic and/or additive effects of milk microbiota and HMOs in protecting against pediatric asthma.


asthma; human milk; human milk oligosaccharides; immune development; microbiota; pediatrics; prebiotic; probiotic

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Frontiers Media SA Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center