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J Immunol Res. 2015;2015:858027. doi: 10.1155/2015/858027. Epub 2015 May 18.

The Influence and Role of Microbial Factors in Autoimmune Kidney Diseases: A Systematic Review.

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine IV (Nephrology and Hypertension), Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstra├če 35, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

Abstract

A better understanding of the pathophysiology of autoimmune disorders is desired to allow tailored interventions. Despite increased scientific interest a direct pathogenic factor in autoimmune renal disease has been described only in a minority like membranous nephropathy or ANCA-associated vasculitis. Nonetheless the initial step leading to the formation of these antibodies is still obscure. In this review we will focus on the possible role of microbial factors in this context. Staphylococcus aureus may be a direct pathogenetic factor in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). Chronic bacterial colonization or chronic infections of the upper respiratory tract have been proposed as trigger of IgA vasculitis and IgA nephropathy. Interventions to remove major lymphoid organs, such as tonsillectomy, have shown conflicting results but may be an option in IgA vasculitis. Interestingly no clear clinical benefit despite similar local colonization with bacterial strains has been detected in patients with IgA nephropathy. In systemic lupus erythematosus injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide induced progressive lupus nephritis in mouse models. The aim of this review is to discuss and summarize the knowledge of microbial antigens in autoimmune renal disease. Novel methods may provide insight into the involvement of microbial antigens in the onset, progression, and prognosis of autoimmune kidney disorders.

PMID:
26078982
PMCID:
PMC4452370
DOI:
10.1155/2015/858027
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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