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J Diabetes Metab Disord. 2019 May 15;18(1):107-117. doi: 10.1007/s40200-019-00396-0. eCollection 2019 Jun.

The effects of high intensity interval training on appetite management in individuals with type 2 diabetes: influenced by participants weight.

Author information

Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Isfahan, Hezar Jerib Street, P.O. Box 81746-7344, Isfahan, Iran.


Background and purpose:

The connection between exercise and appetite has ramifications for acute energy balance and weight-management. Research would suggest that exercise training can transiently suppress appetite, particularly in overweight and T2D, healthy-weight individuals. However, the effect of such a transient appetite suppression on subsequent food intake may be restricted. The aim of this thesis was to investigate appetite responses to HIIT in obesity with T2D and to assess the effect of other exercise characteristics, as well as exercise intensity, in mediating these responses especially appetite hormones.

Materials and methods:

Eighty individuals with type 2 diabetes (forty normal and forty obesity weight) performed HIIT trials, all in arandomly divided, in 8 groups (10 in each group) which included, obesity non-diabetic control, obesity diabetic control, normal weight diabetic control, obesity non-diabetic training, obesity diabetic training, normal weight, non-diabetic training, and normal weight diabetic training. Twelve-weeks HIIT sessions (each session of an interval training includes 60 s of high intensity training (85-95% of reserve heart rate)) + running for 60 s at low intensity (55-60% of reserve heart rate) were applied. Blood samples were taken at the beginning and after the fourth, eighth and twelfth week of the training. Data were analyzed using repeated variance analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient.


The results showed that training reduced ghrelin plasma levels in obese diabetic subjects (P < 0.05). Training has reduced PYY plasma in healthy subjects (non-diabetic) with normal weight (P < 0.05). Training reduced plasma levels of PYY in diabetic patients with normal weight and increased it in obese diabetic and healthy subjects (P < 0.05). Training has increased GLP-1 plasma in obese diabetic and diabetic with normal weight groups (P < 0.05). Training reduced TNF-α in normal (non-diabetic) subjects with normal weight and diabetic and non-diabetic obese subjects.


Collectively, the studies reported here suggest that appetite hormones differ between lean and obesity participants. The finding also suggested HIIT is more likely to elicit appetite hormones responses in obesity than in lean individuals with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, with caution, it is recommended that the high intensity interval training can be beneficial for these patients.


Appetite peptides; Interval training; Obesity; Type 2 diabetes

Conflict of interest statement

Conflict of interestThe authors state that there is no conflict of interests in the present research study.

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