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Breastfeed Med. 2019 Feb 28. doi: 10.1089/bfm.2018.0217. [Epub ahead of print]

Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxin Production in Raw, Holder-Pasteurized, and Ultraviolet-C-Treated Donated Human Milk.

Author information

1
1 Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University, Madinah, Saudi Arabia.
2
2 School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia.
3
3 Marshall Center for Infectious Diseases Research and Training, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia.
4
4 Perron Rotary Express Milk Bank, King Edward Memorial Hospital, Subiaco, Australia.
5
5 Center for Neonatal Research and Education, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia.
6
6 School of Paediatrics, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia.
7
7 School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Australia.
8
8 School of Molecular Sciences, Faculty of Science, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia.
9
9 Center for Applied Statistics, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Some strains of Staphylococcus aureus can produce heat-stable enterotoxins that have been associated with gastritis and potentially necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants.

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS:

To assess the impact of different storage temperatures on S. aureus growth and enterotoxin production in raw, Holder-pasteurized (HP) and ultraviolet-C (UV-C)-treated donated human milk (DHM).

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The milk samples from individual donors were pooled and divided into four equal portions. One portion was HP, the second was UV-C treated, the third was not treated, and the fourth was UV-C treated after being spiked with S. aureus. All samples were incubated at 37°C (18 hours) and 4°C (14 days). Bacterial colony count, enterotoxin A and B, and immune proteins were quantified.

RESULTS:

At 37°C, the colony count increased in HP DHM and decreased in raw and UV-C-treated DHM. At 4°C, colony counts in HP DHM reduced and were not detected in raw and UV-C-treated DHM from day 8 of incubation. No bacteria were detected in samples that were inoculated before UV-C treatment. Enterotoxin A was only detected in HP-DHM at 37°C from the 9th hour onward. Enterotoxin B was detected in one sample at the 15th hour. Immune protein concentrations were similar in raw and UV-C DHM, and were reduced in the HP DHM.

CONCLUSION:

UV-C-treated milk reduces S. aureus growth with similar kinetics to raw milk making it a promising emerging technique to eliminate bacteria while retaining essential immune proteins in DHM.

KEYWORDS:

; Holder pasteurization; UV-C treatment; donated human milk; enterotoxin

PMID:
30817174
DOI:
10.1089/bfm.2018.0217

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