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J Endovasc Ther. 2019 Mar 15:1526602819836382. doi: 10.1177/1526602819836382. [Epub ahead of print]

Serum Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level After Endovascular Therapy in Patients With Claudication.

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1 Department of Cardiology, Kokura Memorial Hospital, Kitakyushu, Japan.



To investigate the association between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and the 5-year cardiovascular death rate after endovascular therapy (EVT) in patients with lower limb peripheral artery disease (PAD) according to statin therapy status.


From January 2010 to March 2016, 1324 PAD patients (1670 limbs) with claudication (Rutherford category 1-3) underwent EVT. After excluding 389 patients owing to death or missing data, 935 (70.6%) patients (mean age 72.1±8.7 years; 708 men) were included in the analysis. Statin therapy was prescribed to 509 (54.4%) patients at discharge. LDL-C levels at 3 to 6 months after EVT were correlated with the incidence of cardiovascular death (CVD; procedure-related and proximate cardiac, noncoronary vascular, or unknown causes) at 5 years. A stratifying factor of 100 mg/dL was based on the median LDL-C value (94 mg/dL) in the cohort. Predictors of CVD were sought in multivariate analysis; results are presented as the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).


Over a median follow-up of 30.7 months (interquartile range 13.7, 47.6), CVD occurred in 83 (8.9%) patients. The incidence of CVD at 5 years was significantly higher in patients with LDL-C ≥100 mg/dL at 3 to 6 months than in those with LDL-C <100 mg/dL (23.5% vs 13.5%, p=0.03). In addition, LDL-C ≥100 mg/dL at 3 to 6 months was associated with a higher incidence of CVD (25.2% vs 10.9%, p=0.02) in 509 (54.4%) patients with statin therapy at discharge. In the multivariate model, LDL-C ≥100 mg/dL at 3 to 6 months after EVT was an independent predictor of CVD (adjusted HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.001 to 2.59, p=0.049).


LDL-C ≥100 mg/dL at 3 to 6 months after the EVT for symptomatic lower limb PAD was independently associated with a higher risk of CVD, particularly in patients on statin therapy at discharge. This observation suggests that intensive LDL-C-lowering therapy may be needed to improve clinical outcomes.


cardiovascular death; endovascular therapy; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; peripheral artery disease; statin therapy


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