Format

Send to

Choose Destination

See 1 citation found by title matching your search:

Toxicology. 2010 Jul-Aug;274(1-3):1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2010.04.016. Epub 2010 May 10.

Sensitization effect of thimerosal is mediated in vitro via reactive oxygen species and calcium signaling.

Author information

1
EA 41-69, Université Lyon 1, Pavillon R, Hôpital Edouard Herriot, 69437 Lyon Cedex 03, France.

Abstract

Thimerosal, a mercury derivative composed of ethyl mercury chloride (EtHgCl) and thiosalicylic acid (TSA), is widely used as a preservative in vaccines and cosmetic products and causes cutaneous reactions. Since dendritic cells (DCs) play an essential role in the immune response, the sensitization potency of chemicals was studied in vitro using U937, a human promyelomonocytic cell line that is used as a surrogate of monocytic differentiation and activation. Currently, this cell line is under ECVAM (European Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods) validation as an alternative method for discriminating chemicals. Thimerosal and mercury derivatives induced in U937 an overexpression of CD86 and interleukin (IL)-8 secretion similarly to 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB), a sensitizer used as a positive control for DC activation. Non-sensitizers, dichloronitrobenzene (DCNB), TSA and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), an irritant, had no effect. U937 activation was prevented by cell pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) but not with thiol-independent antioxidants except vitamin E which affected CD86 expression by preventing lipid peroxidation of cell membranes. Thimerosal, EtHgCl and DNCB induced glutathione (GSH) depletion and reactive oxygen species (ROS) within 15 min; another peak was detected after 2h for mercury compounds only. MitoSOX, a specific mitochondrial fluorescent probe, confirmed that ROS were essentially produced by mitochondria in correlation with its membrane depolarization. Changes in mitochondrial membrane permeability induced by mercury were reversed by NAC but not by thiol-independent antioxidants. Thimerosal and EtHgCl also induced a calcium (Ca2+) influx with a peak at 3h, suggesting that Ca2+ influx is a secondary event following ROS induction as Ca2+ influx was suppressed after pretreatment with NAC but not with thiol-independent antioxidants. Ca2+ influx was also suppressed when culture medium was deprived of Ca2+ confirming the specificity of the measure. In conclusion, these data suggest that thimerosal induced U937 activation via oxidative stress from mitochondrial stores and mitochondrial membrane depolarization with a primordial effect of thiol groups. A cross-talk between ROS and Ca2+ influx was demonstrated.

PMID:
20457211
DOI:
10.1016/j.tox.2010.04.016
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center