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See 1 citation in Chemosphere by Schreder E:

Chemosphere. 2016 May;150:499-504. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.11.084. Epub 2016 Jan 4.

Inhalation a significant exposure route for chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants.

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Washington Toxics Coalition, 4649 Sunnyside Avenue N Suite 540, Seattle, WA 98103, USA. Electronic address:
Washington Toxics Coalition, 4649 Sunnyside Avenue N Suite 540, Seattle, WA 98103, USA.
Department of Aquatic Health Sciences, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William & Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062, USA.


Chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants (ClOPFRs) are widely used as additive flame retardants in consumer products including furniture, children's products, building materials, and textiles. Tests of indoor media in homes, offices, and other environments have shown these compounds are released from products and have become ubiquitous indoor pollutants. In house dust samples from Washington State, U.S.A., ClOPFRs were the flame retardants detected in the highest concentrations. Two ClOPFRs, tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCPP or TDCIPP) and tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP), have been designated as carcinogens, and there is growing concern about the toxicity of the homologue tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TCPP or TCIPP). In response to concerns about exposure to these compounds, the European Union and a number of U.S. states have taken regulatory action to restrict their use in certain product categories. To better characterize exposure to ClOPFRs, inhalation exposure was assessed using active personal air samplers in Washington State with both respirable and inhalable particulate fractions collected to assess the likelihood particles penetrate deep into the lungs. Concentrations of ∑ClOPFRs (respirable and inhalable) ranged from 97.1 to 1190 ng m(-3) (mean 426 ng m(-3)), with TCPP detected at the highest concentrations. In general, higher levels were detected in the inhalable particulate fraction. Total intake of ClOPFRs via the inhalation exposure route was estimated to exceed intake via dust ingestion, indicating that inhalation is an important route that should be taken into consideration in assessments of these compounds.


Chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants (ClOPFRs); Indoor air; Inhalation exposure

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