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Blood Adv. 2018 Nov 27;2(22):3198-3225. doi: 10.1182/bloodadvances.2018022954.

American Society of Hematology 2018 guidelines for management of venous thromboembolism: prophylaxis for hospitalized and nonhospitalized medical patients.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine and.
2
Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
3
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Vermont Larner College of Medicine and University of Vermont Medical Center, Burlington, VT.
4
Inpatient Antithrombosis Service, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM.
5
Department of Medicine, McGill University and Lady Davis Institute, Montreal, QC, Canada.
6
Thrombosis Research Unit, Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine I, University Hospital "Carl Gustav Carus," Dresden, Germany.
7
Kings Thrombosis Service, Department of Hematology, Kings College London, United Kingdom.
8
Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
9
Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
10
Department of Medicine and Surgery, Insubria University, Varese, Italy.
11
State University of New York, Albany, NY.
12
Cochrane Italy, Department of Diagnostic, Clinical and Public Health Medicine, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy; and.
13
Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the third most common vascular disease. Medical inpatients, long-term care residents, persons with minor injuries, and long-distance travelers are at increased risk.

OBJECTIVE:

These evidence-based guidelines from the American Society of Hematology (ASH) intend to support patients, clinicians, and others in decisions about preventing VTE in these groups.

METHODS:

ASH formed a multidisciplinary guideline panel balanced to minimize potential bias from conflicts of interest. The McMaster University GRADE Centre supported the guideline-development process, including updating or performing systematic evidence reviews. The panel prioritized clinical questions and outcomes according to their importance for clinicians and adult patients. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach was used to assess evidence and make recommendations, which were subject to public comment.

RESULTS:

The panel agreed on 19 recommendations for acutely ill and critically ill medical inpatients, people in long-term care facilities, outpatients with minor injuries, and long-distance travelers.

CONCLUSIONS:

Strong recommendations included provision of pharmacological VTE prophylaxis in acutely or critically ill inpatients at acceptable bleeding risk, use of mechanical prophylaxis when bleeding risk is unacceptable, against the use of direct oral anticoagulants during hospitalization, and against extending pharmacological prophylaxis after hospital discharge. Conditional recommendations included not to use VTE prophylaxis routinely in long-term care patients or outpatients with minor VTE risk factors. The panel conditionally recommended use of graduated compression stockings or low-molecular-weight heparin in long-distance travelers only if they are at high risk for VTE.

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