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Indian J Urol. 2013 Apr;29(2):129-32. doi: 10.4103/0970-1591.114035.

Unexplained occurrence of multiple de novo pseudoaneurysms in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing angioembolization for bleeding following percutaneous renal intervention: Are we dealing with infection or vasculitis?

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1
Department of Urology, NRS Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are more prone for bleeding following percutaneous renal intervention, as compared to those with normal renal function. Causes are multi-factorial. Finding multiple aneurysms away from the site of renal intervention following initial angioembolization for hemorrhage is very unusual in these patients.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Clinical and radiological findings of all the patients who underwent renal angiography for post-intervention bleed for a period of 5 years were reviewed and analyzed.

RESULTS:

A total of 29 patients required angiography for post-intervention hemorrhage. Six patients had recurrence of hemorrhage for which they underwent repeat angiography. Four of these patients had appearance of multiple new aneurysms away from the site of percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN)/percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) puncture and the site of previous bleeding. All the patients had CKD (creatinine >2.5 mg/dl). They were on prolonged preoperative urinary diversion and had polymicrobial urinary infection. Three patients had candiduria. None of these patients had re-bleeding after repeat embolization and treatment with antibacterial and antifungal agents.

CONCLUSIONS:

Development of multiple aneurysms away from the sites of punctures in patients with CKD following percutaneous intervention is very unusual. Its causation including infection with bacteria and fungus, reaction of embolizing material, and angiopathy needs to be explored.

KEYWORDS:

Angioembolization; chronic renal failure; hemorrhage; percutaneous nephrostomy; pseudoaneurysm; recurrent

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