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J Immunol. 2013 Feb 15;190(4):1685-94. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1202384. Epub 2013 Jan 7.

Protein tyrosine phosphatase with proline-glutamine-serine-threonine-rich motifs negatively regulates TLR-triggered innate responses by selectively inhibiting IκB kinase β/NF-κB activation.

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National Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China.


TLRs are essential for sensing the invading pathogens and initiating protective immune responses. However, aberrant activation of TLR-triggered inflammatory innate responses leads to the inflammatory disorders and autoimmune diseases. The molecular mechanisms that fine-tune TLR responses remain to be fully elucidated. Protein tyrosine phosphatase with proline-glutamine-serine-threonine-rich motifs (PTP-PEST) has been shown to be important in cell adhesion, migration, and also T cell and B cell activation. However, the roles of PTP-PEST in TLR-triggered immune response remain unclear. In this study, we report that PTP-PEST expression was upregulated in macrophages by TLR ligands. PTP-PEST inhibited TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-β production in macrophages triggered by TLR3, TLR4, and TLR9. Overexpression of catalytically inactive mutants of PTP-PEST abolished the inhibitory effects, indicating that PTP-PEST inhibits TLR response in a phosphatase-dependent manner. Accordingly, PTP-PEST knockdown increased TLR3, -4, and -9-triggered proinflammatory cytokine and type I IFN production. PTP-PEST selectively inhibited TLR-induced NF-κB activation, whereas it had no substantial effect on MAPK and IFN regulatory factor 3 activation. Moreover, PTP-PEST directly interacted with IκB kinase β (IKKβ) then inhibited IKKβ phosphorylation at Ser(177/181) and Tyr(188/199), and subsequently suppressed IKKβ activation and kinase activity as well as downstream NF-κB activation, resulting in suppression of the TLR-triggered innate immune response. Thus, PTP-PEST functions as a feedback-negative regulator of TLR-triggered innate immune responses by selectively impairing IKKβ/NF-κB activation.

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