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JAMA. 2008 Jun 18;299(23):2760-9. doi: 10.1001/jama.299.23.2760.

Prostate cancer-specific survival following salvage radiotherapy vs observation in men with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy.

Author information

1
Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 600 N Wolfe St, 546 Phipps Bldg, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. btrock@jhmi.edu

Abstract

CONTEXT:

Biochemical disease recurrence after radical prostatectomy often prompts salvage radiotherapy, but no studies to date have had sufficient numbers of patients or follow-up to determine whether radiotherapy improves survival, and if so, the subgroup of men most likely to benefit.

OBJECTIVES:

To quantify the relative improvement in prostate cancer-specific survival of salvage radiotherapy vs no therapy after biochemical recurrence following prostatectomy, and to identify subgroups for whom salvage treatment is most beneficial.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS:

Retrospective analysis of a cohort of 635 US men undergoing prostatectomy from 1982-2004, followed up through December 28, 2007, who experienced biochemical and/or local recurrence and received no salvage treatment (n = 397), salvage radiotherapy alone (n = 160), or salvage radiotherapy combined with hormonal therapy (n = 78).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:

Prostate cancer-specific survival defined from time of recurrence until death from disease.

RESULTS:

With a median follow-up of 6 years after recurrence and 9 years after prostatectomy, 116 men (18%) died from prostate cancer, including 89 (22%) who received no salvage treatment, 18 (11%) who received salvage radiotherapy alone, and 9 (12%) who received salvage radiotherapy and hormonal therapy. Salvage radiotherapy alone was associated with a significant 3-fold increase in prostate cancer-specific survival relative to those who received no salvage treatment (hazard ratio [HR], 0.32 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.19-0.54]; P<.001). Addition of hormonal therapy to salvage radiotherapy was not associated with any additional increase in prostate cancer-specific survival (HR, 0.34 [95% CI, 0.17-0.69]; P = .003). The increase in prostate cancer-specific survival associated with salvage radiotherapy was limited to men with a prostate-specific antigen doubling time of less than 6 months and remained after adjustment for pathological stage and other established prognostic factors. Salvage radiotherapy initiated more than 2 years after recurrence provided no significant increase in prostate cancer-specific survival. Men whose prostate-specific antigen level never became undetectable after salvage radiotherapy did not experience a significant increase in prostate cancer-specific survival. Salvage radiotherapy also was associated with a significant increase in overall survival.

CONCLUSIONS:

Salvage radiotherapy administered within 2 years of biochemical recurrence was associated with a significant increase in prostate cancer-specific survival among men with a prostate-specific antigen doubling time of less than 6 months, independent of other prognostic features such as pathological stage or Gleason score. These preliminary findings should be validated in other settings, and ultimately, in a randomized controlled trial.

PMID:
18560003
PMCID:
PMC3076799
DOI:
10.1001/jama.299.23.2760
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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