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J Clin Exp Dent. 2017 Jan 1;9(1):e141-e149. doi: 10.4317/jced.53372. eCollection 2017 Jan.

Prophylaxis and antibiotic therapy in management protocols of patients treated with oral and intravenous bisphosphonates.

Author information

1
Master's Degree in Oral Surgery. School of Dentistry. University of Seville.
2
Associate Professor. Integrated Dentistry and Patients with Special Diseases. School of Dentistry. University of Seville.
3
Professor of Prostheses. Department of Stomatology. School of Dentistry. Complutense University of Madrid.
4
Professor of Oral Surgery. School of Dentistry. University of Seville.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) linked to bisphosphonate treatment has specific characteristics that render its therapeutic management challenging for clinicians. Poor response to standard treatment makes it essential to take special precautions when treating this type of disease; therefore, antibiotic prophylaxis and/or antibiotic therapy have been proposed as effective and helpful tools in these situations.

OBJECTIVES:

This article seeks to assess published evidence in order to evaluate the different protocols used for antibiotic prophylaxis and/or antibiotic therapy in the general context of patients treated with bisphosphonates.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

A literature review of the last 10 years was carried out in PubMed using the following keywords: "antibiotic prophylaxis and osteonecrosis," "bisphosphonates AND osteonecrosis AND dental management," "bisphosphonate AND osteonecrosis AND antibiotic prophylaxis AND oral surgery." A total of 188 articles were obtained, of which 18 were ultimately selected.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

In patients treated with oral and intravenous bisphosphonates without chemotherapy-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw, antibiotic prophylaxis prior to oral surgery is an important tool to avoid osteonecrosis and promote healing of the affected area. If the patient previously exhibited chemotherapy-associated osteonecrosis after tooth extraction, antibiotic prophylaxis is indicated to prevent recurrent osteonecrosis and promote healing of the extraction site. If chemotherapy-associated osteonecrosis is already present, antibiotic therapy is a vital part of conservative management to reduce the symptomatology of MRONJ and keep it from worsening. Finally, a lack of clinical data and randomized controlled trials makes it difficult to choose the most appropriate protocol for the various clinical situations studied. Key words:Bisphosphonates, antibiotic prophylaxis, maxillary osteonecrosis, antibiotic treatment.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors have declared that no conflict of interest exist.

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