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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Oct 26;107(43):18593-8. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1005582107. Epub 2010 Oct 11.

Critical role of DNAX accessory molecule-1 (DNAM-1) in the development of acute graft-versus-host disease in mice.

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Department of Immunology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575, Japan.


Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a life-threatening complication following bone marrow transplantation; however, no effective molecular-targeting therapy has been determined. Here, we show that mice that received allogeneic splenocytes deficient in DNAX accessory molecule-1 (DNAM-1) had significantly milder GVHD and lower mortality than those that received allogeneic WT splenocytes. Donor CD8(+) T cells deficient in DNAM-1 showed significantly less proliferation and infiltration of the liver and intestines of recipient mice and produced less IFN-γ after coculture with allogeneic splenocytes than WT CD8(+) T cells. Mice prophylactically treated with an anti-DNAM-1 antibody showed milder GVHD and lower mortality than those treated with a control antibody. Moreover, treatment with a single administration of the antibody after the overt onset of GVHD ameliorated GVHD and prolonged survival. Finally, we show that the anti-DNAM-1 antibody therapy also ameliorated the overt GVHD in lethally irradiated mice after MHC-matched, minor antigen-mismatched bone marrow transplantation. These results indicate that DNAM-1 plays an important role in the development of GVHD and is an ideal molecular target for therapeutic approaches to GVHD.

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