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J Dent. 2017 Dec;67:36-42. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2017.07.013. Epub 2017 Jul 25.

Prevalence of periodontitis, dental caries, and peri-implant pathology and their relation with systemic status and smoking habits: Results of an open-cohort study with 22009 patients in a private rehabilitation center.

Author information

1
Research Development Department, Maló Clinic, Avenida dos Combatentes, 43, piso 11, 1600-042 Lisboa, Portugal. Electronic address: mignobre@gmail.com.
2
Oral Surgery Department, Maló Clinic, Avenida dos Combatentes, 43, piso 9, 1600-042 Lisboa, Portugal. Electronic address: research@maloclinics.com.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

This investigation, based on a 3-year epidemiological surveillance open cohort study, aimed to provide an insight of the prevalence of periodontitis, dental caries and peri-implant pathology and to compare inferentially between healthy and systemic compromised patients.

METHODS:

A total of 22009 patients were observed consisting in 9035 men (41.1%) and 12974 women (58.9%) with an average age of 48.5 years (standard deviation of 15.6years). The prevalence of the 3 chronical oral diseases was calculated. The comparison between healthy and systemic compromised patients for each oral disease was performed through multivariate logistic regression: Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated in one general model and one systemic condition specific model adjusted for age and gender. Attributable fractions were estimated for systemic conditions (both models). The level of significance was set at 5%.

RESULTS:

The prevalence rate of periodontitis, dental caries and peri-implant pathology was 17.6%, 36.6% and 13.9%, respectively. The systemic compromised status was associated with the prevalence of the three chronical oral diseases on the general models. The systemic condition specific models yielded Diabetes [OR=1.49, 95%CI (1.24;1.79)] and HIV+ [OR=4.37, 95%CI (1.05;18.24)] as risk indicators for Periodontitis; cardiovascular conditions [OR=1.10, 95%CI (1.01;1.20)], Diabetes [OR=1.24, 95%CI (1.05;1.46)] and neurologic conditions [OR=1.84, 95%CI (1.32;2.57)] as risk indicators for dental caries; and smoking habits as a risk indicator for all three oral diseases [OR=1.90, 95%CI (1.74;2.07) for Periodontitis; OR=1.18, 95%CI (1.09;1.27) for dental caries; OR=1.84, 95%CI (1.64;2.07) for peri-implant pathology]. Attributable fractions estimated a potential reduction of 12.2% of Periodontitis, and 4.3% of dental caries cases if the exposure to systemic conditions was prevented; while the prevention of exposure to smoking alone would result in a potential reduction of 37%, 7%, and 39% of Periodontitis, dental caries, and peri-implant pathology cases, respectively.

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE:

The present study describes an epidemiological approach to the distribution and determinants of the three principal chronical oral diseases. The association of systemic conditions and smoking habits with oral disease prevalence highlight the importance of a narrow monitoring system.

CONCLUSIONS:

The present study reported a high prevalence for oral disease and a potential association of a systemic compromised status and smoking habits with the three chronical oral diseases.

KEYWORDS:

Dental caries; Dental implants; Epidemiological studies; Peri-implantitis; Periodontitis; Tooth

PMID:
28750777
DOI:
10.1016/j.jdent.2017.07.013
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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