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IUBMB Life. 2015 Jul;67(7):524-32. doi: 10.1002/iub.1398. Epub 2015 Jul 15.

Post-translational modifications in regulation of pathogen surveillance and signaling in plants: The inside- (and perturbations from) outside story.

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Regional Centre for Biotechnology, NCR Biotech Science Cluster, Faridabad, Haryana, 121001, India.


In its lifetime a plant is exposed to pathogens of diverse types. Although methods of surveillance are broadly pathogen-individualized, immune signaling ultimately connect to common core networks maintained by key protein hubs. Defense elicitations modulate these hubs to re-allocate energy from central metabolic pathway into processes that execute immunity. Because unregulated defenses severely decrease growth and productivity of the host, signaling regulators within the networks function to achieve cellular equilibrium once the threat is minimized. Protein modifications by post-translational processes regulate the molecular switches and crosstalks between interconnected pathways spatially and temporally. Covalent modification of host targets connected to hubs are strategies used by most virulent effectors and result in re-routing signals to suppress host defenses. Resistance is a result of activation of specialized classes of receptors that short-circuit effector activities by co-localizing via post-translational modifications (PTMs) with effector targets. Despite advancement in proteome methodologies, our understanding of how PTMs regulate plant defenses remains elusive. This review presents protein-modifications as forefront regulators of plant innate immunity.


NB-LRR; effectors; plant innate immunity; post-translational modifications

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