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PLoS One. 2015 Jun 12;10(6):e0129083. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0129083. eCollection 2015.

Artery Wall Assessment Helps Predict Kidney Transplant Outcome.

Author information

1
Nephrology Department, Carlos Haya Regional University Hospital and University of Málaga (IBIMA), REDinREN, Málaga, Spain.
2
Research Unit, Hospital Universitario de Canarias, Tenerife, Spain.
3
Radiology Department, Hospital Universitario de Canarias, Tenerife, Spain.
4
Nephrology Department, Hospital Universitario de Canarias, CIBICAN, University of La Laguna, Instituto Reina Sofía de Investigación Renal (IRSIN), Tenerife, Spain.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Kidney transplant recipients have high cardiovascular risk, and vascular inflammation may play an important role. We explored whether the inflammatory state in the vessel wall was related to carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) and patient survival following kidney transplantation.

METHODS:

In this prospective observational cohort study we measured c-IMT and expression of proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules in the inferior epigastric artery in 115 kidney transplant candidates. Another c-IMT measurement was done 1-year post-transplantation in 107. By stepwise multiple regression analysis we explored factors associated with baseline c-IMT and their changes over time. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was constructed to identify risk factors for mortality.

RESULTS:

A worse cardiovascular profile (older age, smoker, diabetic, carotid plaque, systolic blood pressure and vascular calcification) and higher VCAM-1 levels were found in patients in the highest baseline c-IMT tertile, who also had a worse survival. Factors independently related to baseline c-IMT were age (β=0.369, P<0.0001), fasting glucose (β=0.168, P=0.045), smoking (β=0.228, P=0.003) and VCAM-1 levels (β=0.244, P=0.002). Independent factors associated with c-IMT measurement 1-year post-transplantation were baseline c-IMT (β=-0.677, P<0.0001), post-transplant diabetes (β=0.225, P=0.003) and triglycerides (β=0.302, P=0.023). Vascular VCAM-1 levels were associated with increased risk of mortality in bivariate and multivariate Cox regression. Notably, nearly 50% of patients showed an increase or maintenance of high c-IMT 1 year post-transplantation and these patients experienced a higher mortality (13 versus 3.5%; P=0.021).

CONCLUSION:

A worse cardiovascular profile and a higher vascular VCAM-1 protein levels at time of KT are related to subclinical atheromatosis. This could lead to a higher post-transplant mortality. Pre-transplant c IMT, post-transplant diabetes and triglycerides at 1-year post-transplantation may condition a high c-IMT measurement post-transplantation, which may decrease patient survival.

PMID:
26066045
PMCID:
PMC4466324
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0129083
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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