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Chemistry. 2016 Jun 13;22(25):8525-35. doi: 10.1002/chem.201600206. Epub 2016 May 23.

Phosphono Bisbenzguanidines as Irreversible Dipeptidomimetic Inhibitors and Activity-Based Probes of Matriptase-2.

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Pharmaceutical Institute, Pharmaceutical Chemistry I, University of Bonn, An der Immenburg 4, 53121, Bonn, Germany.
Department of Life Science Informatics, B-IT, LIMES Program Unit Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, University of Bonn, Dahlmannstrasse 2, 53113, Bonn, Germany.
Department of Gastrointestinal Microbiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke, Arthur-Scheunert-Allee 114-116, 14558, Nuthetal, Germany.
Pharmaceutical Institute, Pharmaceutical Chemistry I, University of Bonn, An der Immenburg 4, 53121, Bonn, Germany.


Matriptase-2, a type II transmembrane serine protease, plays a key role in human iron homeostasis. Inhibition of matriptase-2 is considered as an attractive strategy for the treatment of iron-overload diseases, such as hemochromatosis and β-thalassemia. In the present study, synthetic routes to nine dipeptidomimetic inactivators were developed. Five active compounds (41-45) were identified and characterized kinetically as irreversible inhibitors of matriptase-2. In addition to a phosphonate warhead, these dipeptides possess two benzguanidine moieties as arginine mimetics to provide affinity for matriptase-2 by binding to the S1 and S3/S4 subpockets, respectively. This binding mode was strongly supported by covalent docking analysis. Compounds 41-45 were obtained as mixtures of two diastereomers and were therefore separated into the single epimers. Compound 45 A, with S configuration at the N-terminal amino acid and R configuration at the phosphonate carbon atom, was the most potent matriptase-2 inactivator with a rate constant of inactivation of 2790 m(-1)  s(-1) and abolished the activity of membrane-bound matriptase-2 on the surface of intact cells. Based on the chemotyp of phosphono bisbenzguanidines, the design and synthesis of a fluorescent probe (51 A) by insertion of a coumarin label is described. The in-gel fluorescence detection of matriptase-2 was demonstrated by applying 51 A as the first activity-based probe for this enzyme.


enzymes; fluorescent probes; inhibitors; peptidomimetics; serine proteases

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