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  • Showing results for Pharmacokinetics[Title] AND Pharmacodynamics[Title] AND Reverse[Title] AND Transcriptase[Title] AND Inhibitor[Title] AND Prophylactic[Title] AND Efficacy[Title] AND against[Title] AND HIV-1[Title] AND Infection[Title]. Your search for Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of the Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Tenefovir and Prophylactic Efficacy against HIV-1 Infection retrieved no results.
PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e40382. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040382. Epub 2012 Jul 11.

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the reverse transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir and prophylactic efficacy against HIV-1 infection.

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1
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Free University Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

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  • PLoS One. 2012;7(11). doi:10.1371/annotation/fb73d0f4-1cd8-481d-bddd-20439896102a.

Abstract

Antiviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) through daily drug administration can protect healthy individuals from HIV-1 infection. While PrEP was recently approved by the FDA, the potential long-term consequences of PrEP implementation remain entirely unclear. The aim of this study is to predict the efficacy of different prophylactic strategies with the pro-drug tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate (TDF) and to assess the sensitivity towards timing- and mode of TDF administration (daily- vs. single dose), adherence and the number of transmitted viruses. We developed a pharmacokinetic model for TDF and its active anabolite tenofovir-diphosphate (TFV-DP) and validated it with data from 4 different trials, including 4 distinct dosing regimes. Pharmacokinetics were coupled to an HIV model and viral decay following TDF mono-therapy was predicted, consistent with available data. Subsequently, a stochastic approach was used to estimate the % infections prevented by (i) daily TDF-based PrEP, (ii) one week TDF started either shortly before, or -after viral exposure and (iii) a single dose oral TDF before viral challenge (sd-PrEP). Analytical solutions were derived to assess the relation between intracellular TFV-DP concentrations and prophylactic efficacy. The predicted efficacy of TDF was limited by a slow accumulation of active compound (TFV-DP) and variable TFV-DP half-life and decreased with increasing numbers of transmitted viruses. Once daily TDF-based PrEP yielded [Formula: see text]80% protection, if at least 40% of pills were taken. Sd-PrEP with 300 mg or 600 mg TDF could prevent [Formula: see text]50% infections, when given at least before virus exposure. The efficacy dropped to [Formula: see text]10%, when given 1 h before 24 h exposure. Efficacy could not be increased with increasing dosage or prolonged administration. Post-exposure prophylaxis poorly prevented infection. The use of drugs that accumulate more rapidly, or local application of tenofovir gel may overcome the need for drug administration long before virus exposure.

PMID:
22808148
PMCID:
PMC3394807
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0040382
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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