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Perit Dial Int. 2004 Jul-Aug;24(4):392-8.

PD fluids contain high concentrations of cytotoxic GDPs directly after sterilization.

Author information

1
Corporate Research, Gambro AB, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden. martin.erixon@gambro.com

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Glucose degradation products (GDPs) in peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluids are cytotoxic and affect the survival of the peritoneal membrane. One of the most reactive GDPs in PD fluids is 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene (3,4-DGE). 3,4-DGE has been reported as an intermediate between 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) and 5-hydroxymethyl furaldehyde (5-HMF) during degradation of glucose. In PD fluids, 3,4-DGE exists in a temperature-dependent equilibrium with a pool of unidentified substances. The aim of this study was to explore this equilibrium and its temperature dependence during the first months of storage after the sterilization procedure.

METHODS:

GDPs and inhibition of cell growth (ICG) were measured directly after sterilization of the PD fluid and during storage at different temperatures for 60 days. The following GDPs were analyzed: 3-DG, 3,4-DGE, 5-HMF, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, glyoxal, and methylglyoxal.

RESULTS:

Immediately after sterilization, the concentration of 3,4-DGE was 125 micromol/L. During the first weeks of storage, it decreased by about 80%. At the same time, the 3-DG concentration increased. None of the other GDPs were significantly affected. Cytotoxicity correlated well with the concentration of 3,4-DGE. When pure 3,4-DGE was substituted for the lost amount of 3,4-DGE after 30 days of storage, the initial ICG was almost completely regained.

CONCLUSIONS:

Heat sterilization of PD fluids promotes the formation of large quantities of 3,4-DGE, rendering the fluid highly cytotoxic. During storage, the main part of 3,4-DGE is reversibly converted in a temperature-dependent manner to a less cytotoxic pool, consisting mainly of 3-DG. Cytotoxicity seems to be dependent exclusively on 3,4-DGE. In order to avoid higher levels of 3,4-DGE concentrations, PD fluids should not be used too soon after sterilization and should not be stored at temperatures above room temperature.

Comment in

PMID:
15335155
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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