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J Urol. 2013 Apr;189(4):1493-7. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2012.11.107. Epub 2012 Nov 27.

Pediatric primary urolithiasis: 12-year experience at a Midwestern Children's Hospital.

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Pediatric Nephrology Unit, Clinics Hospital, School of Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.



Due to environmental and social changes (and possibly obesity) as new risk factors for stone formation in adults and changes in imaging techniques, we assessed whether etiologies of primary pediatric urolithiasis have changed, and if relationships exist between the condition and obesity or imaging technique.


All pediatric patients with documented primary urolithiasis who underwent serum and 24-hour urine analyses between 1999 and 2010 were evaluated. Age at diagnosis, gender, body mass index and imaging technique were recorded.


Of the 222 patients (48% male) all had normal serum creatinine, electrolytes and minerals. Primary pediatric urolithiasis was diagnosed by ultrasound in 73% of cases and computerized tomography in 27%. Mean ± SD annual incidence of urolithiasis per 1,000 clinic visits increased from 2.4 ± 1.5 in the first half of the study period to 6.2 ± 2.1 in the second half (p <0.005). Mean ± SD age at diagnosis was 11.8 ± 3.8 years and body mass index was 21.7 ± 5.7 (rate of overweight 15%). A total of 140 patients had urine output less than 1.0 ml/kg per hour, with this being the only abnormality in 54. Hypercalciuria was observed in 46% of patients, hypocitraturia in 10% and high calcium-to-citrate ratio in 51%. Mild absorptive hyperoxaluria was noted in 3 patients and hyperuricosuria in 11, with all 14 exhibiting at least 1 additional abnormality. Cystinuria was present in 1 patient. No etiology was identified in 20 patients (9.0%).


Oliguria and hypercalciuria continue to be the most common etiologies of pediatric primary urolithiasis, followed by hypocitraturia. The recent increase in stone incidence is unlikely due to increased use of computerized tomography. Incidence of obesity was not higher than in the general population. Hyperoxaluria and cystinuria are rare, and thus might not be indicated in the initial analysis.

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