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Zookeys. 2019 Nov 27;892:1-26. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.892.38447. eCollection 2019.

Parasitic nematodes of marine fishes from Palmyra Atoll, East Indo-Pacific, including a new species of Spinitectus (Nematoda, Cystidicolidae).

Author information

1
El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, unidad Chetumal. Av. Centenario Km 5.5, Chetumal, Quintana Roo 77014, México.
2
Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Branišovská 31, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic.
3
Laboratorio de Patología Acuática, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, Mérida. Antigua carretera a Progreso km. 6, Cordemex, Mérida, Yucatán, México.
4
Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Biology and Marine Science Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA.
5
Scripps Institution of Oceanography-Marine Biology Research Division, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA.
6
Western Ecological Research Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Marine Science Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara CA 93106, USA.

Abstract

Here, we present the results of a taxonomic survey of the nematodes parasitizing fishes from the lagoon flats of Palmyra Atoll, Eastern Indo-Pacific. We performed quantitative parasitological surveys of 653 individual fish from each of the 44 species using the intertidal sand flats that border the atoll's lagoon. We provide morphological descriptions, prevalence, and mean intensities of the recovered seven species of adult nematode (Pulchrascaris chiloscyllii, Capillariidae gen. sp., Cucullanus bourdini, Cucullanus oceaniensis, Pseudascarophis sp., Spinitectus (Paraspinitectus) palmyraensissp. nov., Philometra pellucida) and three larval stages (Pulchrascaris sp., Hysterothylacium sp., Cucullanus sp.). We recorded: Pulchrascaris chiloscyllii from Carcharhinus melanopterus; Capillariidae gen. sp. from Chaetodon lunula, Lutjanus fulvus, and Ellochelon vaigiensis; Cucullanus bourdini from Arothron hispidus; Cucullanus oceaniensis from Abudefduf sordidus; Pseudascarophis sp. from Chaetodon auriga, Chaetodon lunula, and Mulloidichthys flavolineatus; Spinitectus (Paraspinitectus) palmyraensissp. nov. from Albula glossodonta; Philometra pellucida from Arothron hispidus; and three larval forms, Pulchrascaris sp. from Acanthurus triostegus, Acanthurus xanthopterus, Rhinecanthus aculeatus, Platybelone argalus, Carangoides ferdau, Carangoides orthogrammus, Caranx ignobilis, Caranx melampygus, Caranx papuensis, Chaetodon auriga, Chanos chanos, Amblygobius phalaena, Asterropteryx semipunctata, Valencienea sexguttata, Kyphosus cinerascens, Lutjanus fulvus, Lutjanus monostigma, Ellochelon vaigiensis, Mulloidichthys flavolineatus, Upeneus taeniopterus, Gymnothorax pictus, Abudefduf septemfasciatus, Abudefduf sordidus, and Stegastes nigricans; Hysterothylacium sp. type MD from Acanthurus triostegus, Carangoides ferdau, Chaetodon lunula, Chanos chanos, Kyphosus cinerascens, Abudefduf sordidus, and Arothron hispidus; and Cucullanus sp. from Caranx ignobilis. Spinitectus (Paraspinitectus) palmyraensissp. nov. (Cystidicolidae) is described from the intestine of roundjaw bonefish Albula glossodonta. All the nematode species reported in this study represent new geographical records. We discuss how our survey findings compare to other areas of the Indo-Pacific, and the way the relatively numerical dominance of trophically transmitted larval stages likely reflect the intact food web of Palmyra Atoll, which includes a large biomass of large-bodied top predator sharks and ray-finned fishes.

KEYWORDS:

Cucullanus ; Hysterothylacium ; Paraspinitectus ; Philometra ; Pseudascarophis ; Pulchrascaris

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