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Am J Med Genet A. 2018 Feb;176(2):470-476. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.38569. Epub 2017 Dec 22.

The novel RAF1 mutation p.(Gly361Ala) located outside the kinase domain of the CR3 region in two patients with Noonan syndrome, including one with a rare brain tumor.

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Institute of Human Genetics, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.
University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Bioinformatics Core Facility, Hamburg, Germany.
Center for Bioinformatics, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
Heinrich-Pette-Institute, Leibniz-Institute for Experimental Virology, Virus Genomics, Hamburg, Germany.
Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Parkville, Australia.
Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia.
Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.
University Children's Hospital, Belgrade, Serbia.
Institute of Human Genetics, University Hospital Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany.


Noonan syndrome is characterized by typical craniofacial dysmorphism, postnatal growth retardation, congenital heart defect, and learning difficulties and belongs to the RASopathies, a group of neurodevelopmental disorders caused by germline mutations in genes encoding components of the RAS-MAPK pathway. Mutations in the RAF1 gene are associated with Noonan syndrome, with a high prevalence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). RAF1 mutations cluster in exons encoding the conserved region 2 (CR2), the kinase activation segment of the CR3 domain, and the C-terminus. We present two boys with Noonan syndrome and the identical de novo RAF1 missense variant c.1082G>C/p.(Gly361Ala) affecting the CR3, but located outside the kinase activation segment. The p.(Gly361Ala) mutation has been identified as a RAF1 allele conferring resistance to RAF inhibitors. This amino acid change favors a RAF1 conformation that allows for enhanced RAF dimerization and increased intrinsic kinase activity. Both patients with Noonan syndrome showed typical craniofacial dysmorphism, macrocephaly, and short stature. One individual developed HCM and was diagnosed with a disseminated oligodendroglial-like leptomeningeal tumor (DOLT) of childhood at the age of 9 years. While there is a well-established association of NS with malignant tumors, especially childhood hemato-oncological diseases, brain tumors have rarely been reported in Noonan syndrome. Our data demonstrate that mutation scanning of the entire coding region of genes associated with Noonan syndrome is mandatory not to miss rare variants located outside the known mutational hotspots.


Noonan syndrome; RAS-MAPK pathway; RASopathies; cancer

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