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Gut Pathog. 2017 Aug 17;9:47. doi: 10.1186/s13099-017-0197-6. eCollection 2017.

Incidence of Campylobacter concisus and C. ureolyticus in traveler's diarrhea cases and asymptomatic controls in Nepal and Thailand.

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Department of Enteric Diseases, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, 315/6 Rajvithi Road, Bangkok, 10400 Thailand.
CIWEC Clinic Travel Medicine Center, GPO Box 12895, Kapurdhara Marg, Kathmandu, 44600 Nepal.
Bumrungrad International Hospital, 33 Soi Sukhumvit 3, Khwaeng Khlong Toei Nuea, Khet Watthana, Bangkok, 10110 Thailand.



Campylobacter concisus and C. ureolyticus have emerged in recent years as being associated with acute and prolonged gastroenteritis and implicated in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases. However, there are limited data on the prevalence of these microorganisms in Southeast Asia. In this study, 214 pathogen-negative stool samples after laboratory examination for common enteric pathogens to include C. jejuni and C. coli by culture from two case-control traveler's diarrhea (TD) studies conducted in Thailand (cases = 26; controls = 30) and Nepal (cases = 83; controls = 75) respectively were assayed by PCR for the detection of Campylobacter 16S rRNA and two specific heat shock protein genes specific for C. concisus (cpn60) and C. ureolyticus (Hsp60) respectively.


Campylobacter 16S rRNA was detected in 28.5% (61/214) of the pathogen-negative TD stool samples (CIWEC Travel Medicine Clinic, Kathmandu, Nepal: cases = 36, control = 14; Bamrungrad International Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand: cases = 9, controls = 2). C. consisus was identified significantly more often in TD cases in Nepal (28.9%; 24/83) as compared to controls (4%; 3/75) (OR = 9.76; 95% CI 2.80-34.02; P = 0.0003) while C. consisus was detected in only two cases (2/26; 7.7%) and none of the controls stool samples from Thailand. C. ureolyticus was detected in four cases (4.8%; 4/83) and four controls (5.3%; 4/75) and in one case (3.8%; 1/26) and one control (3.1%; 1/30) from Nepal and Thailand respectively. C. jejuni and C. coli were isolated in 18.3 and 3.4% of the cases and in 4.0 and 1.4% of the controls in stool samples from both Thailand and Nepal respectively while C. concisus nor C. ureolyticus were not tested for in these samples.


These findings suggest that C. concisus potentially is a pathogen associated with TD in Nepal. To our knowledge, this is the first report of C. concisus and C. ureolyticus detected from traveler's diarrhea cases from travelers to Nepal and Thailand.


Campylobacter; Diarrhea; Nepal; Thailand; Travelers

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