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World J Surg. 2014 Nov;38(11):2746-52. doi: 10.1007/s00268-014-2674-0.

A randomized prospective study comparing acquisition of laparoscopic skills in three-dimensional (3D) vs. two-dimensional (2D) laparoscopy.

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Academic Department of Upper GI Surgery, Barts and Royal London Hospital, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK,



We aimed to compare the performance of novices with three-dimensional (3D) versus two-dimensional (2D) laparoscopy using Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) tasks.


Fifty-six novices with no uncorrected visual problems were randomly allocated to 2D and 3D groups. All candidates practiced FLS tasks on a box trainer until they achieved proficiency. Their performance was assessed by considering completion time, number of repetitions, and number of errors following the validated FLS proficiency criteria.


Twenty-five participants in each group completed the training curriculum. The median performance time (in minutes) for the 3D group was 216, which was less than that of the 2D group of 247 min (P = 0.266). The median numbers of repetitions and errors were lower for the 3D group versus the 2D group: 108 versus 121 (P = 0.008) and 27 versus 105 (P < 0.001), respectively.


Stereoscopic vision improved accuracy in laparoscopic skills for novices, which was manifested in reduced numbers of repetitions and errors. However, it does not affect the global performance time across all tasks.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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