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Addict Res Theory. 2014;22(6):481-489.

Gender and Social Pressure to Change Drinking Behavior: Results from the National Alcohol Surveys from 1984-2010.

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Alcohol Research Group, 6475 Christie Ave. #400, Emeryville, CA 94608, 510-597-3440.



Research shows social and institutional pressure influences drinking, yet determinants of who receives pressure are understudied. This paper examines age, time period, and birth cohort (APC) effects on pressure to stop or reduce drinking among U.S. men and women.


Data were drawn from six National Alcohol Surveys (NAS) conducted from 1984 to 2010 (N=32,534). Receipt of pressure during the past year to quit or change drinking from formal (police, doctor, work) and informal (spouse, family, friends) sources was assessed.


Determinants of pressure were similar for men and women but varied in strength. They included younger age, less education, and younger cohort groups. Cohort effects were stronger for women than men.


Cohort effects among women may be due to increased alcohol marketing to younger women and the changing social contexts of their drinking. Future studies should assess associations between drinking contexts, pressures, and outcomes.


alcohol survey; cohort effect; gender; social pressure

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