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Environ Res. 2014 Aug;133:12-9. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2014.04.040. Epub 2014 Jun 3.

Dietary predictors of urinary environmental biomarkers in young girls, BCERP, 2004-7.

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Department of Preventive Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 1 Gustave L. Levy Place Box 1057, New York, NY 10029, USA. Electronic address:
Department of Preventive Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 1 Gustave L. Levy Place Box 1057, New York, NY 10029, USA.
Department of Environmental Health, Kettering Building, Room 208, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3223 Eden Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0056, USA.
Division of Environmental and Occupational Disease Control, California Department of Public Health, 850 Marina Bay Pkwy, Bldg P, Richmond CA 94804, USA.
Division of Adolescent Medicine, Cincinnati Children׳s Hospital Medical Center, 3333, Burnet Avenue (ML-4000), Cincinnati OH 45229-3029, USA.
Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente, 2000 Broadway, Oakland, CA 94612, USA.
National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.



Exposures of children to phthalates, parabens, and bisphenol-A (BPA) are of concern because of their hormonal potential. These agents are found in a wide range of foods and packaging. We investigated whether intake of certain foods predict exposures to these chemicals in young girls.


Among 1101 girls (6-8 years at enrollment) from the Breast Cancer and Environment Research Program (BCERP) study, we measured urinary exposure biomarkers for phthalates, parabens, and BPA and assessed dietary intake using 24-h recall 2-4 times. We examined the average daily servings of major and minor food groups categorized as 0 to <0.5, 0.5 to <1 and ≥ 1 servings per day. Items included dairy, eggs, fats, fish, fruit, single grains, meat, non-poultry meats, pasta, poultry and vegetables. Covariate-adjusted least squares geometric means and 95% confidence intervals of creatinine-corrected phthalate and phenol metabolite concentrations in urine were calculated in relation to food intake.


Grains, flour and dry mixes and total fish consumption were positively associated with BPA and the sum of four di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) urinary metabolite concentrations. Non-fresh vegetables and poultry were both positively associated with BPA and paraben urinary concentrations. Fats, oils and poultry consumption were positively associated with BPA. Whole-fat dairy consumption was associated with ΣDEHP.


Some foods may contribute to child exposures to certain chemicals, and this may constitute modifiable means to reduce these environmental exposures.


Biomarkers; Bisphenol A; Endocrine disruptors; Parabens; Phthalates

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