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J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Apr 13;59(7):2792-802. doi: 10.1021/jf1033569. Epub 2010 Nov 24.

Immunoassays and biosensors for monitoring environmental and human exposure to pyrethroid insecticides.

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Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, Davis, California 95616, United States.


This paper describes some of the early work on pyrethroid insecticides in the Casida laboratory and briefly reviews the development and application of immunochemical approaches for the detection of pyrethroid insecticides and their metabolites for monitoring environmental and human exposure. Multiple technologies can be combined to enhance the sensitivity and speed of immunochemical analysis. The pyrethroid assays are used to illustrate the use of some of these immunoreagents such as antibodies, competitive mimics, and novel binding agents such as phage-displayed peptides. The paper also illustrates reporters such as fluorescent dyes, chemiluminescent compounds, and luminescent lanthanide nanoparticles, as well as the application of magnetic separation, and automatic instrumental systems, biosensors, and novel immunological technologies. These new technologies alone and in combination result in an improved ability to both determine if effective levels of pyrethroids are being used in the field and evaluate possible contamination.

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