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Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Feb 15;15(4):1460-5. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-1599.

Phase I trial of 2-methoxyestradiol NanoCrystal dispersion in advanced solid malignancies.

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University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center Madison, Wisconsin 53792, USA.



2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2; Panzem) is an endogenous, estradiol-17beta metabolite that at pharmacologic doses exerts antimitotic and antiangiogenic activities. Studies with a 2ME2 capsule formulation showed limited oral bioavailability. We report the results of a phase I study using a NanoCrystal Dispersion formulation of 2ME2 (2ME2 NCD).


Patients with refractory solid tumors received 2ME2 NCD orally. Patients received drug either every 6 hours (part A) or every 8 hours (part B). Doses were escalated in successive cohorts until the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was identified. The primary objective was identifying the MTD. Secondary objectives were to evaluate the plasma pharmacokinetics of 2ME2 and efficacy.


In part A, 16 patients received a median of 4 cycles of 2ME2 NCD. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) included fatigue (2), hypophosphatemia (2), increased alanine aminotransferase (1), and muscle weakness (1). Trough levels at steady-state reached the minimum effective concentration in all cohorts. The MTD was determined to be 1,000 mg orally every 6 hours. In part B, 10 patients received a median of 1 cycle. DLTs included elevated gamma-glutamyltransferase (1), hyponatremia (1), fatigue (1), and anorexia (1). An MTD could not be defined for part B because 4 of 10 patients had DLTs at the initial dose level and dose reduction was not pursued. Thirteen patients had stable disease (A, 11; B, 2); there were no confirmed responses.


For 2ME2 NCD, the MTD and recommended phase II regimen is 1,000 mg orally every 6 hours. Treatment was generally well-tolerated.

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