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Stem Cells Int. 2016;2016:2056416. doi: 10.1155/2016/2056416. Epub 2016 Jan 10.

Osteogenesis from Dental Pulp Derived Stem Cells: A Novel Conditioned Medium Including Melatonin within a Mixture of Hyaluronic, Butyric, and Retinoic Acids.

Author information

1
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sassari, Viale San Pietro 43/B, 07100 Sassari, Italy; Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Stem Cell Engineering, National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, Via Massarenti, 40138 Bologna, Italy.
2
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sassari, Viale San Pietro 43/B, 07100 Sassari, Italy; Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Stem Cell Engineering, National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, Via Massarenti, 40138 Bologna, Italy; Research Department, Rinaldi Fontani Foundation, Viale Belfiore 43, 50144 Florence, Italy; Department of Biotechnology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Muthgasse 18, A-1190 Vienna, Austria.
3
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sassari, Viale San Pietro 43/B, 07100 Sassari, Italy.
4
Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria di Sassari, Via Michele Coppino 26, 07100 Sassari, Italy.
5
Department of Biotechnology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Muthgasse 18, A-1190 Vienna, Austria.
6
Research Department, Rinaldi Fontani Foundation, Viale Belfiore 43, 50144 Florence, Italy; Department of Regenerative Medicine, Rinaldi Fontani Institute, Viale Belfiore 43, 50144 Florence, Italy.
7
Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Stem Cell Engineering, National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, Via Massarenti, 40138 Bologna, Italy; Stem Wave Institute for Tissue Healing (SWITH), Gruppo Villa Maria and Ettore Sansavini Health Science Foundation, Via Provinciale per Cotignola 9, 48022 Lugo, Ravenna, Italy.

Abstract

Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) have shown relevant potential for cell therapy in the orthopedic and odontoiatric fields. The optimization of their osteogenic potential is currently a major challenge. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF A) has been recently reported to act as a major conductor of osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Here, we attempted to prime endogenous VEGF A expression without the need for viral vector mediated gene transfer technologies. We show that hDPSCs exposure to a mixture of hyaluronic, butyric, and retinoic acids (HA + BU + RA) induced the transcription of a gene program of osteogenesis and the acquirement of an osteogenic lineage. Such response was also elicited by cell exposure to melatonin, a pleiotropic agent that recently emerged as a remarkable osteogenic inducer. Interestingly, the commitment to the osteogenic fate was synergistically enhanced by the combinatorial exposure to a conditioned medium containing both melatonin and HA + BU + RA. These in vitro results suggest that in vivo osteogenesis might be improved and further studies are needed.

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