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Emerg Infect Dis. 2010 Jun;16(6):926-35. doi: 10.3201/eid1606.091623.

Oseltamivir-resistant influenza viruses A (H1N1) during 2007-2009 influenza seasons, Japan.

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National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Musashi-Murayama, Tokyo, Japan.


To monitor oseltamivir-resistant influenza viruses A (H1N1) (ORVs) with H275Y in neuraminidase (NA) in Japan during 2 influenza seasons, we analyzed 3,216 clinical samples by NA sequencing and/or NA inhibition assay. The total frequency of ORVs was 2.6% (45/1,734) during the 2007-08 season and 99.7% (1,477/1,482) during the 2008-09 season, indicating a marked increase in ORVs in Japan during 1 influenza season. The NA gene of ORVs in the 2007-08 season fell into 2 distinct lineages by D354G substitution, whereas that of ORVs in the 2008-09 season fell into 1 lineage. NA inhibition assay and M2 sequencing showed that almost all the ORVs were sensitive to zanamivir and amantadine. The hemagglutination inhibition test showed that ORVs were antigenetically similar to the 2008-09 vaccine strain A/Brisbane/59/2007. Our data indicate that the current vaccine or zanamivir and amantadine are effective against recent ORVs, but continuous surveillance remains necessary.

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